Turbine Services & Solutions
Turbine, any of various devices that convert the energy in a stream of fluid into mechanical energy. The conversion is generally accomplished by passing the fluid through a system of stationary passages or vanes that alternate with passages consisting of finlike blades attached to a rotor. By arranging the flow so that a tangential force, or torque, is exerted on the rotor blades, the rotor turns, and work is extracted.
Turbines can be classified into four general types according to the fluids used: water, steam, gas, and wind. Although the same principles apply to all turbines, their specific designs differ sufficiently to merit separate descriptions.
A water turbine uses the potential energy resulting from the difference in elevation between an upstream water reservoir and the turbine-exit water level (the tailrace) to convert this so-called head into work. Water turbines are the modern successors of simple waterwheels, which date back about 2,000 years. Today the primary use of water turbines is for electric power generation.
The greatest amount of electrical energy comes, however, from steam turbines coupled to electric generators. The turbines are driven by steam produced in either a fossil-fuel-fired or a nuclear-powered generator. The energy that can be extracted from the steam is conveniently expressed in terms of the enthalpy change across the turbine. Enthalpy reflects both thermal and mechanical energy forms in a flow process and is given by the sum of the internal thermal energy and the product of pressure times volume. The available enthalpy change through a steam turbine increases with the temperature and pressure of the steam generator and with reduced turbine-exit pressure.